Résistance à l'insuline : le diabète

Insulin resistance: diabetes

Insulin resistance and diabetes are concepts related to the metabolism and regulation of sugar in the body. Let's start by explaining what insulin is and how it normally works in the body.

Insulin: what is it?

Insulin is an important hormone for metabolism, produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Its main role is to regulate the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood by facilitating the absorption of glucose by the body's cells.

Here is a more detailed explanation of its functions and mechanism of action:

Production and release:

  • Beta cells in the pancreas are responsible for producing insulin. They constantly monitor the concentration of glucose in the blood.
  • When the concentration of glucose increases after a meal, beta cells respond by producing and releasing insulin into the bloodstream.
Stimulation of glucose absorption:
  • Insulin acts as a chemical messenger, signaling the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood.
  • Muscle, adipose (fat) and hepatic (liver) cells have insulin receptors on their surface.
Absorption of glucose by cells:
  • Once insulin binds to these receptors, it facilitates the entry of glucose into cells.
  • Inside cells, glucose is used as an energy source or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles.
Inhibition of glucose production:
  • In addition to promoting glucose uptake by cells, insulin also inhibits the liver's production of glucose.
  • It reduces the release of glucose from the liver into the blood.
Nutrient storage:
  • Insulin also promotes nutrient storage. It stimulates the storage of fats in adipose cells and the storage of proteins by promoting protein synthesis.
Role in lipid metabolism:
  • Insulin influences lipid metabolism by inhibiting the breakdown of stored fats (lipolysis) and promoting lipid storage.
  • It thus helps to maintain the body's energy balance.
Blood sugar regulation:
  • Under normal conditions, insulin release is regulated depending on the level of glucose in the blood. When blood sugar levels decrease, insulin production also decreases.
Defects in insulin regulation:
  • Problems in the production of insulin or in the response of cells to the effects of insulin can lead to metabolic disorders such as diabetes.

Normal functioning of insulin

Insulin acts as a key that allows glucose to enter cells, especially muscle and adipose (fat) cells. Inside these cells, glucose is used as an energy source. When blood glucose levels decrease, insulin production also decreases.

Now let's address insulin resistance.

Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance occurs when the body's cells become less sensitive to the action of insulin. In other words, even though the pancreas produces insulin, the cells do not respond adequately, leading to an increase in the level of glucose in the blood.

Causes of insulin resistance may include genetics, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle and other factors. When insulin resistance develops, the pancreas may respond by producing more insulin to try to keep blood sugar levels normal.


Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by persistently high blood glucose levels. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

  • Type 1 diabetes: It occurs when the immune system destroys the beta cells in the pancreas, which are responsible for producing insulin. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin externally to regulate their blood sugar levels.
  • Type 2 diabetes: It is usually associated with insulin resistance. Cells don't respond properly to insulin, and the pancreas may not produce enough insulin to compensate. Type 2 diabetes is often linked to lifestyle factors, such as obesity, physical inactivity and an unhealthy diet. It can be treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications, and sometimes insulin.

Regulating insulin and managing insulin resistance often involves changes in lifestyle and dietary choices. Here are some general recommendations that can help regulate insulin:

Adopt a balanced diet:

  • Favor complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, which are digested more slowly and have a less impact on blood sugar.
  • Limit consumption of added sugars, candy, sugary drinks and processed foods.
Control portions:
  • Eat smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day rather than large meals.
  • Avoid overeating and stick to recommended portions.

Include protein in every meal:

  • Protein helps stabilize blood sugar levels and can contribute to satiety.
  • Healthy protein sources include lean meat, fish, eggs, low-fat dairy, legumes and nuts.

Choosing healthy fats:

  • Opt for unsaturated fats, such as those found in avocados, nuts, seeds, olive oil and fatty fish.
  • Limit the consumption of saturated fats and trans fats.

Maintain a healthy weight:

  • Weight loss can improve insulin sensitivity. A healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise.
Exercise regularly:
  • Exercise helps reduce insulin resistance by increasing the sensitivity of cells to insulin. Regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming or weight training, is beneficial.

To manage stress :

  • Stress can influence glucose levels and insulin resistance. Relaxation, meditation, and other stress management techniques can be helpful.

Control alcohol consumption:

  • Limit alcohol consumption, as excess alcohol can affect blood sugar levels.

Monitor sleep quality:

  • Adequate sleep is important for hormonal regulation, including that of insulin.

Drink apple cider vinegar:

Known for its many health benefits, apple cider vinegar also helps regulate our blood sugar levels and facilitate the work of insulin.

We recommend a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar diluted in a large glass of water before each meal.

Consult a healthcare professional:

If you have problems regulating insulin or have symptoms of insulin resistance, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional. They may recommend tests, dietary adjustments, medications, or other interventions depending on your situation.

These general recommendations may vary depending on individual needs, and it is always recommended to consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice regarding insulin regulation.

Ultimately , insulin resistance is a condition where cells do not respond effectively to insulin, which can lead to diabetes, a disease characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood. Managing diabetes often involves lifestyle adjustments, medications, and sometimes insulin administration.

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